The EV charging station is also termed electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE). It is used to charge electric cars, neighbourhood electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrids. EV Charging stations were developed in the 19th century. In 1899, the Electric charging station was launched by General Electric and it was established in US cities. This charging station looked like a telephone pillar. After that number of EV charging stations is well developed. The EV charging station comes in two types like AC charging stations and DC fast chargers. In the AC charging station power is transferred to the onboard charger. DC fast charger provides high power charging and is equipped with a number of connectors that enable to charge of numerous varieties of vehicles. DC power supply to the vehicle bypassing converter. Most electric cars run on AC and DC power. For most vehicles, there is a need for a larger AC-to-DC converter. This converter is a built-in electrical vehicle. Vehicles receive the AC power from the wall and it converts into DC power internally and charges the battery.
The EV charging station charges the vehicles at a different speed. It consists of levels 1, level 2, and level 3 charging systems.
Level 1 (Household): System used for charging 120 volts (V), alternating-current (AC) plug, and dedicated circuit.
Level 2 (Business): Charge the vehicle through 240V, AC plug, and home charging or public charging pieces of equipment.
Level 3 (Commercial): It is a DC faster charger, that charges the vehicle using 480V and a direct current (DC) plug.
EV charging stations consist of:
• Physical Components - It contains internal electronics, controllers, cords, EV-compatible plugs, and telecommunications devices for sharing data and allows network connections.
• Software - The application of EV software is to manage the charge stations and their networks. The functional software elements are diverse interface, operator interface, admin interface, network databases, charge station interface adaptor, and charge station operational software. The automatic fault detection, live meter display, connection and monitor the charger, billing, payment, managing users, track cost, and interactive dashboard are the key features of electrical vehicle software.
• On-Going Operation and Maintenance - It includes setting up the EV driver access control, pricing consultation, up-time monitoring, reporting, and maintenance of hardware and software.
Charging Station Network:
There are three types of charging station networks including Non-networked, Closed networks, and Open networks.
1. Non-networked - Generally it is used in the residential area. It is not connected to any other network.
2. Closed network - It is a proprietary communication between the charging station and the network server.
3. Open network – It is a standard communication between charging stations and multiple open networks.
Public EV Charging Station:
This charging station is situated in a public place like a parking space. During the charging of the electrical cars at the public EV charging station, people can pay only electricity and usage fees. Some public EV charging stations are rapid charging stations that are too expensive. There are some disadvantages of the public EV charging station such as sometimes there is need long waiting to charge the vehicle, difficult to search public EV charging stations for new people that unfamiliar with the area, public charging station provides level 3 fast charging, it can cause battery damage.
Home EV Charging Station:
Home EV charging stations are more convenient to use and come at affordable prices. People can charge the vehicle at any time without waiting. But it’s one disadvantage it takes more time to charge a vehicle as compared to a public EV charging station.
North America is Dominated in the Development of EV charging Station:
In North America a high number of charging stations are available. The U.S. Department of Energy's Alternative Fuels Data Center stated that the total EV charging stations are over 115,000 including public EV charging stations above 46,000, 41,000 Level 2 stations with over 91,000 charging ports, 6000 DC fast charging stations available. The US is the leading country in the public EV charging station.
Charging Time of Vehicle:
The charging time of a vehicle is based on the capacity, power density, and charging power of a battery. If the capacity and power density of the battery is high, then the battery can accept more power per unit time, and this higher charging power transfers more energy to the vehicle per unit time. The charge time can be calculated by using the formula:
Charging Time = Battery Capacity/ Charging Power (kWh/kW)
Need for Electrical Vehicles Charging Station:
The EV charging stations should be placed in cities every three kilometers. For twenty-five kilometers, they should be on both sides of the roads. The long-range and heavy-duty vehicles that are runs on electricity mostly located on the highway, so for 100 kilometers, they should be placed on both sides of the highway. Now a day’s industrial transportation increases on a large scale and rising the electrical vehicle network, so there is a huge need for electrical charging stations.
The EV charging station provides some benefits including:
1. EV charging station helps the environment by preventing them to be polluted by fossil fuels.
2. Helps to decrease global warming.
3. Charging station charge the vehicle easily.
4. Gives the best speed experience to vehicles.
Future of EV Charging Station:
Use the V2G EV charging stations for electrical vehicles. It is a bidirectional charger it saves energy and transfers the energy into the electricity grid on basis of high demand. In 2022, Volkswagen launched V2G EV charging station. This system stabilizes the grid, power the household, and charge other EVs. V2G battery network improves the EV charging operation, it is a lucrative opportunity to enhance the productivity of EV charging stations.
Challenges in Installation of EV Charging Station:
The government of various countries has stringent rules regarding the installation of charging stations. The provider of EV charging stations needs of follows government instructions. For the installation EV charging station in the commercial area, the procedure is difficult because it requires guidelines of community or design, parking requirements, zoning requirements, and inspection fees. For the installation of an EV charging station, there is the requirement to consider the Cost, plot plan, Electrical Load Calculations, and Electrical Plans. During the charging time, the major challenge is to manage the traffic crowd at charging stations.
Major Key Players Involved in The Manufacturer of EV charging Station:
• ChargePoint Inc.
• Schneider Electric
• Blink Charging
• Tata Power
Increase the installation of EV charging stations owing to an increase in the demand for electric vehicles. With the increase in the prices of fossil fuels, people like to use electrical vehicles. Electrical vehicles prevent the environment from pollution and help to decrease global warming. Nowadays, raising concern about pollution among the people increase the demand for such a vehicle. EV charging stations are available in public EV charging stations and home charging stations, people can use them on basis of their comfort. Most EV charging stations present in the North America and Asia Pacific region. The government of various countries invested in production of EV charging station. Thus, it is anticipated to increase the number of EV charging station among the world in analysis year.